ethernet

Ethernet is a large and diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies for local area networks (LANs). The name comes from the physical concept of the ether. It defines a number of wiring and signaling standards for the physical layer, two means of network access at the Media Access Control (MAC)/Data Link Layer, and a common addressing format.

Ethernet has been standardized as IEEE 802.3. Its star-topology, twisted pair wiring form became the most widespread LAN technology in use from the 1990s to the present, largely replacing competing LAN standards such as coaxial cable Ethernet, token ring, FDDI, and ARCNET. In recent years, WiFi, the wireless LAN standardized by IEEE 802.11, has been used in addition to or instead of Ethernet in many installations.

Description

Ethernet was originally based on the idea of computers communicating over a shared coaxial cable acting as a broadcast transmission medium. The methods used show some similarities to radio system, although there are major differences, such as the fact that it is much easier to detect collisions in a cable broadcast system than a radio broadcast. The common cable providing the communication channel was likened to the ether and it was from this reference that the name "Ethernet" was derived.

From this early and comparatively simple concept Ethernet evolved into the complex networking technology that today powers the vast majority of local computer networks. The coaxial cable was later replaced with point-to-point links connected together by hubs and/or switches in order to reduce installation costs, increase reliability, and enable point-to-point management and troubleshooting. StarLAN was the first step in the evolution of Ethernet from a coaxial cable bus to a hub-managed, twisted pair network. The advent of twisted-pair wiring enabled Ethernet to become a commercial success.

Above the physical layer, Ethernet stations communicate with each other by sending each other data packets, small blocks of data that are individually sent and delivered. As with other IEEE 802 LANs, each Ethernet station is given a single 48-bit MAC address, which is used both to specify the destination and the source of each data packet. Network interface cards (NICs) or chips normally do not accept packets addressed to other Ethernet stations. Adapters generally come programmed with a globally unique address but this can be overridden either to avoid an address change when an adapter is replaced or to use locally administered addresses.

Despite the huge changes in Ethernet from a thick coaxial cable bus running at 10 Mbit/s to point-to-point links running at 1 Gbit/s and beyond, all generations of Ethernet (excluding very early experimental versions) share the same frame formats (and hence the same interface for higher layers) and can be readily (and in most cases cheaply) interconnected.

Due to the ubiquity of Ethernet, the ever-decreasing cost of the hardware needed to support it and the reduced panel space needed by twisted pair Ethernet, most manufacturers now build the functionality of an Ethernet card directly into PC motherboards, removing the need for installation of a separate network card.

For more information, check here
To learn more about Metro Ethernet
Ethernet is a large and diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies for local area networks (LANs). The name comes from the physical concept of the ether. It defines a number of wiring and signaling standards for the physical layer, two means of network access at the Media Access Control (MAC)/Data Link Layer, and a common addressing format.

Ethernet has been standardized as IEEE 802.3. Its star-topology, twisted pair wiring form became the most widespread LAN technology in use from the 1990s to the present, largely replacing competing LAN standards such as coaxial cable Ethernet, token ring, FDDI, and ARCNET. In recent years, WiFi, the wireless LAN standardized by IEEE 802.11, has been used in addition to or instead of Ethernet in many installations.

Description

Ethernet was originally based on the idea of computers communicating over a shared coaxial cable acting as a broadcast transmission medium. The methods used show some similarities to radio system, although there are major differences, such as the fact that it is much easier to detect collisions in a cable broadcast system than a radio broadcast. The common cable providing the communication channel was likened to the ether and it was from this reference that the name "Ethernet" was derived.

From this early and comparatively simple concept Ethernet evolved into the complex networking technology that today powers the vast majority of local computer networks. The coaxial cable was later replaced with point-to-point links connected together by hubs and/or switches in order to reduce installation costs, increase reliability, and enable point-to-point management and troubleshooting. StarLAN was the first step in the evolution of Ethernet from a coaxial cable bus to a hub-managed, twisted pair network. The advent of twisted-pair wiring enabled Ethernet to become a commercial success.

Above the physical layer, Ethernet stations communicate with each other by sending each other data packets, small blocks of data that are individually sent and delivered. As with other IEEE 802 LANs, each Ethernet station is given a single 48-bit MAC address, which is used both to specify the destination and the source of each data packet. Network interface cards (NICs) or chips normally do not accept packets addressed to other Ethernet stations. Adapters generally come programmed with a globally unique address but this can be overridden either to avoid an address change when an adapter is replaced or to use locally administered addresses.

Despite the huge changes in Ethernet from a thick coaxial cable bus running at 10 Mbit/s to point-to-point links running at 1 Gbit/s and beyond, all generations of Ethernet (excluding very early experimental versions) share the same frame formats (and hence the same interface for higher layers) and can be readily (and in most cases cheaply) interconnected.

Due to the ubiquity of Ethernet, the ever-decreasing cost of the hardware needed to support it and the reduced panel space needed by twisted pair Ethernet, most manufacturers now build the functionality of an Ethernet card directly into PC motherboards, removing the need for installation of a separate network card.

For more information, check here
To learn more about Metro Ethernet
Created by: lejoneric, Last modification: Fri 21 of Oct, 2011 (04:11 UTC) by lokua
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